Written by: Engr Sami Ullah Stanikzai (www.civilglobal.com)
Some Useful information and formulas for Civil engineers
In this Article i will discuss you the some useful in formation and formulas which are related with field and it must be keep in Mind Every engineers.
These are the given Information which are too much important for every civil engineers.
1: Unite Weight Of Steel in Kg Per Meter For Different Diameter:
For 6 mm steel the weight is 0.222 kg/m
For 8 mm steel the weight is 0.395 kg/m
For 10 mm steel the weight is 0.616 kg/m
For 12 mm steel the weight is 0.888 kg/m
For 16 mm steel the weight is 1.578 kg/m
For 20 mm steel the weight is 2.466 kg/m
For 25 mm steel the weight is 3.853 kg/m
For 32 mm steel the weight is 6.313 kg/m
For 40 mm steel the weight is 9.865 kg/m
The above Unite Weight Of Steel we can Find out with D2/162 Formula
2: Standard Conversion Factors:
1 inch = 25.4mm
1 feet = 0.3048 m
1 yard = 0.9144 m
1 meter = 3.28 ft
1 mm = 0.0394 inch
1 mile = 1.6093 km
1 newton = 0.10 kg
3: Concrete clear cover for Reinforcement:
Raft FoundationTop should be = 50 mm
Raft Foundation Bottom should be = 75 mm
Raft Foundation Side should be = 75 mm
Beam clear cover should be = 25 mm
Strap Beam clear cover should be = 50 mm
Column clear minimum clear cover should be = 40 mm
flat Slab should be = 20 mm
Slab should be = 15 mm
4:Different Unit Weight of Engineering Materials.
Bitumien = 1340 kg/m3
Cement = 1440 kg/m3
Cast Iron = 7650 kg/m3
Steel = 7850 kg/m3
Ice = 913 kg/m3
Petrol = 690 kg/m3
Water = 1000 kg/m3
5: Concrete Grade Ratio:
For M5 concrete grades, the ratio should be = 1:4:8
For M10 concrete grades, the ratio should be = 1:3:6
For M15 concrete grades, the ratio should be = 1:2:4
For M20 concrete grades, the ratio should be = 1:1.5:3
For M25 concrete grades, the ratio should be = 1:1:2
Here, M denotes Mix and M15 means the Compressive strength of concrete gained after 28 days as 15N/mm2 (N = newton).
5: General Informations:
The maximum chair spacing = 1 meter
Minimum no. of bars in square column should be = 4 No’s
Minimum no. of bars in circular column Should be = 6 No’s
Hook for stirrups one side should be = 9D
No. of stirrups = (clear span/spanning) + 1
Minimum diameter should be used in dowels rod – 12 mm.
Length of main steel in cantilever anchorage – 69D.
Curing for the Ordinary Portland cement are =10 days
Curing for the Cement with minerals and admixtures = 14 days.
Minimum diameter of main bars and distribution bars should be in the slab = 8 mm
Maximum diameter of main bars and distribution bars should in the slab = 1/8 of slab thickness , which is (slab thickness).
The Compressive strength of bricks are = 3.5 N/mm2.
The Density Of Bricks from 1600 to 920 Kg/m3.
Maximum free fall of concrete should be = 1.50 meter
Lapping should not be used for the bars having larger diameter than 36 mm, otherwise it will make a problems.
Minimum thickness of slab should be not less than = 125 mm
Note: The above information is using in building construction works in field. which are using to find out the weigh of steel , Density of different material, to know The Grade of Concrete and also Proportion of concrete for different grade of concrete which are very compulsory in Civil Engineering field.
The Civil Engineers should be know all these point . Because these all Question can also ask from you in the interview.
If here is any other information so please you comments I will add with this article. Thanks.